Sandra Davies

Funambulist, aerialist, gymnast, these words have been used to describe the occupation of the man born Jean-Francois Gravelet in the Pas de Calais region of France on 28th February 1824. His father was also a gymnast and it was no surprise that he enrolled his son in the École de Gymnase, Lyons. Jean-Francois was just six years old when he began performing under the name ‘The Little Wonder’. Having lost both parents during his childhood, he took up performing professionally as a means of supporting himself. During his twenties he adopted the stage name Charles Blondin (apparently it had been his fair-haired father’s nickname, translating as ‘blondie’). It was while he toured America with the Ravel Troupe in 1858 that he became obsessed with the idea of crossing Niagara Falls on a tightrope.   

He eventually had permission to make an attempt on the last day of June 1859. He made several crossings that day, while his audience held their collective breaths and watched through their fingers. This apparently fearless performer made more than three hundred crossings of the Falls during his career, sometimes on stilts, or riding a bicycle, perching on a dining chair, carrying a very trusting friend on his back and other daring feats.


Charles Blondin carrying his faithful friend Harry Colcord across Niagara Gorge, 1859.

Wikipedia Commons

This venue was clearly the highpoint of his career as he named his house in Marylebone, ‘Niagara Villa’. A later move to Ealing led to the naming of the family home as ‘Niagara House’, the address at which he died a week short of his 73rd birthday in 1897. The Niagara story was one which I read, as a teacher, to classes several times. What I had not realised is that barely two years after this tremendous event, Blondin actually came to Neath to entertain people who had travelled from far and wide.

Several newspapers reported on the event, which took place on Saturday, 24th August 1861. The Swansea & Glamorgan Herald took a negative view of proceedings. The article told of how preparations had been made at the railway station (organising special trains, erecting barriers and importing ticket collectors and porters from neighbouring stations) to receive an influx of between thirty and forty thousand visitors to the town, especially as it was to be Blondin’s one and only appearance in South Wales. In actual fact, closer to three or four thousand actually turned up. It was, apparently, a ‘sad falling off of worshippers of an iron-nerved rope dancer’, with the journalist venturing to state that if M Blondin was to return to the area, he would not attract even a quarter of this number as they had seen feats of this kind before in the ‘travelling circuses’.

However, other newspapers that week – the Cambria Daily Leader, the Cardiff Times and the Merthyr Telegraph – differed in their analysis of the event. What follows is a blend of the columns dedicated to it by these three. One journalist reported that the crowd, though slow to arrive, came with ‘a terrific rush at each entrance’ towards half past three and was estimated at around twelve thousand – even if only about eight thousand paid to watch from the enclosure! (The huge canvas screens had failed to stop the remaining third from having a bird’s eye view from adjacent fields and thoroughfares.) Much had been done to prepare an arena for the spectacle.

As to the location, this was in a large field, or meadow, facing the Vale of Neath Brewery. ‘A considerable space at the side of the mountain, which runs parallel with the Cadoxton road, had been cleared of its brushwood and was speedily covered with expectant spectators. Below, the field was thronged ...’ Refreshment marquees had been erected at either end by Mr Williams of Newport and Mr Kerr of Neath’s Victoria Hotel. Also delighting the audience was a group of five talented Ethiopians (though we are not told the nature of their performance) as well as two bands: the Cyfarthfa and that of Captain Evans’ Vale of Neath Brewery Rifle Corps, with the captain himself being mounted on a fine charger.

Blondin’s favourite rope – a hundred yards long, six and a half inches in circumference and weighing nearly half a ton – was already in situ, elevated seventy feet from the ground and attached to ‘two immense baulks of timber’ each of which included a small platform shaded by the Tricolour and the Union Jack. 

Dark clouds in the morning had given way to sunny intervals and not a drop of rain fell. There was eager anticipation of seeing the man himself who had arrived late morning by train from Halifax, where he had given an exhibition on Friday and been taken straight to the Castle Hotel (we cannot claim an overnight stay in Neath as he left for London by the 7.00pm train; his next performance was due at Crystal Palace on the Monday). At this point, M Blondin was thirty-seven years old, of a muscular build and stood five feet eight inches tall. Estimates of his weight, however, varied between ten and sixteen stone. Quite a range -  though there can be little doubt that muscle accounted for most of it!

‘Exactly at half past four a carriage, drawn by a pair of horses, conveying M Blondin and two friends, was seen speeding through the crowd; and the celebrated Cyfarthfa Band struck up ‘See the Conquering Hero Comes’, while loud cheers arose from the people. It was five and twenty minutes to five when M Blondin stood with his balancing pole (made of ash, tipped with two feet of iron at each end and more than forty pounds in weight) in his hand; and stepped onto the rope. He was attired in a close-fitting acrobatic silk dress … slightly ornamented by blue silk ribbons about the neck, while round his loins he wore trunks of blue silk with white stars.’

His costume was adorned with several gleaming medals, one of which had been presented to him by the inhabitants of Niagara. He quickly captured the attention of his audience, ‘some assisted by race-glasses’. As he ran to the centre, ‘the hoarse murmuring of the people became suddenly hushed in breathless anticipation’. Poised on one leg, he knelt and lay flat on his back on the rope, ‘imitating the actions of a swimmer’. He turned several somersaults in rapid succession. For another of his journeys he was blindfolded with his head in a sack. He had barely left the platform – his legs trembling, his whole body quivering and swaying like a tree in a blast – when one foot dropped below the rope. This happened repeatedly, the crowd at first letting out ‘an involuntary exclamation of horror’ – until they realised that these ‘feints’ were all part of the act, causing loud laughter. His final crossing involved a miniature wheelbarrow, evoking

‘deafening cheers of an admiring multitude’. Then bowing to the audience, who responded with ‘yells of delight’, he descended to terra firma by means of the pulley-rope and jumped into his carriage which returned him to the privacy and quiet of his temporary apartments in town, ‘cheer upon cheer being taken up the whole line of the route’.

Undoubtedly there were some who went away disappointed that M Blondin had not cooked omelettes, or pushed his American friend in the wheelbarrow and other such feats. However, his three quarters of an hour on the rope ‘ought to have sufficed even for the most unreasonable appetite.’ All things considered, the event had been a great success, ‘with not a single case of picking pockets’. Many stayed at the venue, where the evening’s amusements were concluded with a good display of fireworks.


Portrait of Charles Blondin (undated)

Wikipedia Commons

07 June 2024Cricketer & House Painter


Martyn J Griffiths

Cricket was a game which became ever more popular in the nineteenth century and, in South Wales, much of that rise in popularity was due to the enthusiasm and support of SirJohn Dillwyn Llewelyn of Ynysygerwn and Penllergaer. It was he who in 1863 formed the Cadoxton Cricket Club, playing for the club for much of his early life. One sportsman who he gave much favour to was Joseph Lovering, a man of humble origins, who worked as a house painter but who found that he had a special talent for the game of cricket.


Joe Lovering was born in Tynyrheol (at that time regarded as a separate village to Tonna) and was baptised at Cadoxton on 6th August 1837. His father, a native of Devon, was possibly employed at Tynyrheol farm or as a servant at the gentleman’s residence of the same name which stood next door. His mother was aptly named Grace – given the fame that the Grace family gave to the game of cricket. Joe’s father died just a few months after the christening.


By the 1860s, he was playing cricket regularly. Sir John Dillwyn Llewellyn recognised his talent and, putting a sovereign down on the wicket, challenged Lovering to bowl him out. Sending down what was referred to as a ‘demon delivery’; Lovering clean bowled Sir John and pocketed the money.


Lovering’s cricketing career lasted until he was about 40 years of age and during those years, he turned out for many and varied teams – Cadoxton, Neath, Glamorganshire, Swansea, Welsh Wanderers, Monmouth & District, South Wales, Players of South Wales and even for Jesus College Oxford. His link with the last named probably came through his relationship with Sir John and who probably also obtained a coaching position for him at his former school, Eton College, in 1870.


It is worth noting that the Cadoxton and Neath clubs were one and the same.The Neath club was formed in 1848, but by the 1860s had serious money troubles. They were bailed out by JTD Llewelyn who paid off their debts and it was at this time that the re-formed club changed its name to Cadoxton. Later on, the club became known as Gnoll Park Cricket Club and only reverted to being Neath Cricket Club in 1906.


Joe Lovering described himself as a cricket professional with the Cadoxton club and a house painter. His brothers were also painters.


A twentieth century newspaper report stated that he had twice bowled that titan of English cricket, Dr WG Grace, for a duck; but that is probably a story that became more exaggerated as the years went by. He did in fact bowl Fred Grace (brother of WG) for a duck in a match between Clifton and Cadoxton at The Gnoll in 1869.That was no mean feat as all three Grace brothers went on to play in the first ever international match by England against Australia.


Joe did meet WG at Monkswood in Gwent, playing for Monmouth & District against West Gloucestershire in September 1866 and bowled him with his first ball for four runs.


He also played against WG Grace in May 1868 at The Gnoll, when a South of England X1 took on 22 players from Neath & Cadoxton, but although WG fell for ‘a pair of spectacles’ that day, Lovering was not the successful bowler.


The Neath team that day was filled with many well-known Neath personalities. Apart from Sir John Dillwyn Llewelyn and Joe Lovering, the team included Walter Whittington whose brother Dr Tom Whittington would become one of the area’s foremost cricketers; George J May, a chain manufacturer after whom May’s Hill was named; W Bancroft senior and junior – the forefathers of Welsh rugby great WJ Bancroft; Philip W Flower of the firm Leach, Flowers & Co who started a Tinplate Works; RP Morgan of RP Morgan & David, solicitors; and D Godfrey Thomas, civil engineer and father of C Stanley Thomas of the Borough Engineers Department who would be a stalwart of the early Neath Antiquarians.

Illustrated Sporting News 1865

Joe Lovering is seated on the right

Lovering was described as a right-hand batsman and a round-arm fast bowler.At the start of his career, he would bat high up the team order but most of his time was spent as one of the last men to come in.He was more famed for his bowling and his style is no longer seen today.At the start of the nineteenth century under-arm bowling was the norm.This changed to round-arm in the 1830s.The action is described as; 'the bowlers extend their arm about 90 degrees from their body at the point where they release the ball.'Over-arm bowling was legalised in 1864 and became the more popular form of delivery.The renowned Sri Lankan fast bowler, Malinga, who retired in 2021, was nick-named Slinger Malinga because of his (now) unusual style of round-arm bowling.


Lovering’s greatest bowling feat was taking 15 wickets in a match against the MCC (Marylebone Cricket Club) at the Lord’s cricket ground, whilst playing for a south Wales cricket club in August 1869.This was noted in Frederick Lilywhite’s Cricket Scores and Biographies written in 1878 where he mentioned that Lovering clean-bowled 14 of his 15 wickets.He was noted as ‘a good average bat, a fast round-armed bowler, and fields generally at third man up.’He was a small man and Lilywhite described him as 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighing 9 stone 10 pounds.He adds that Lovering had been engaged with the Neath club for twelve seasons


Nearly all the cricket that Lovering played in ‘home’ matches was played at The Gnoll, where the Neath Cricket Club still meets today.However, he did play at least one match at a field in Neath Abbey which must have been at or near the site of CEM Day’s garage.It was known as ‘Deer’s Field’ as it was owned by William Deer, the landlord of the Brittania Inn on Bridge Street in Neath.He would provide refreshments for players and spectators.Lovering played one of his earliest recorded matches there against Bridgend in August 1862.  Joseph Lovering was buried in Cadoxton on 6th June 1887.  His grave which was ‘found’ by churchyard clearance volunteer Eleri Phillips, is very simple and the only inscription on the stone reads ‘Joe Lovering’.

Incidentally, William Deer is also buried at Cadoxton, his magnificent steepled monument is situated alongside the footpath between the church and the Murder Stone.

With thanks to Eleri Phillips and Andrew Hignall (archivist, Glamorgan County Cricket Club)

06 May 2024Blackguard & Demagogues

Blackguard & Demagogues



On the south wall of St Catwg’s church Cadoxton, John Edwards Vaughan is commemorated with an impressive memorial tablet which has a coffin in relief.  It records the facts that he was a Justice of the Peace and Member of Parliament for the County of Glamorgan and, although of Rheola, that he died at his house in Regent Street, London and is buried in Lambeth Church.  He was baptised In the Church of St Mary, Lambeth on 29th March 1772, the son of John Edwards and his wife Catherine – a fact that would be used to challenge him later in life.  Edwards senior, an engineer and inventor, had his son articled in 1788 to Hugh White of the Inner Temple with the result that he was admitted as an attorney of the King's Bench in 1793.  Edwards senior, whose residence was Belvedere House, Vine Street, Lambeth, purchased the Rheola and Hendreallwn farms in 1799 for which he paid the princely sum of 3,000 guineas.  He subsequently engaged John Nash (the architect who is remembered for his work on Buckingham Palace, Regent's Park and Regent Street, to name but a few of his illustrious works) to design the country house that is Rheola, and which was built sometime between 1811 and 1813 [Rheola House was illustrated by Thomas Hornor who advertised his pending pictorial survey of Wales in The Cambrian newspaper in 1814].

Through advantageous marriages and inheritances Edwards junior, of Red Lion Square and King’s Bench Walk, London, substantially increased his wealth which he had achieved as a parliamentary solicitor.  In 1799 he married, in St Catwg’s church, Ann Williams, the daughter and sole heiress of solicitor and estate manager Thomas Williams of Cwrt Herbert.   Williams died in 1802 followed by his daughter in 1807 and in that same year Edwards remarried to Sarah, widow of James Dalton of Russell Square, Bloomsbury, London and daughter of Daniel Parkin, cordwainer and his wife Sarah Barwis.  Sarah had three children with Dalton and two with Edwards.  Her children with Edwards were Nash Vaughan Edwards and Jessie Edwards born at their residence in Bloomsbury. 

In 1815 The Cambrian newspaper reported the death of Thomas Barnes [Barwis] ‘at his house in Wandsworth, Surrey, the uncle of Mrs Edwards, of Rheola, Glamorgan, on whom his immense property devolves.’ 

Following the death in 1817 of Benjamin Hall, the MP for Glamorgan, Edwards junior offered himself as a candidate for parliament on the platform that a businessman should represent the County of Glamorgan.  Whilst he had the support of many notable gentlemen he was detested by those who did not share his political views.  Having failed on this occasion to be elected, Edwards put his name forward again in 1818 when his electioneering tactics were radical to say the least.   The diaries of Lewis Weston Young, who was foremost amongst his opponents, make very interesting, if somewhat biased, reading of the shenanigans employed by Edwards.  Purporting to be a true Welshman and calling himself Edwards y Cymro, the opposition countered by stating that his grandfather came to Glamorgan from Staffordshire and his baptismal certificate from Lambeth was reproduced as a poster.  Dillwyn writes in his diary that;

‘Edwards is engaging a numerous Squad of all sorts of Lawyers and all the Coaches and Chaises in the County and he goes on throwing money in every possible manner.’

One of Edwards’ staunchest supporters was William Vaughan of Lanelay, himself a Barrister at Law and Marshal and Registrar of the Great Sessions for the counties of Glamorgan, Brecon, and Radnor.

Sir John Nicholl described Edwards as revolutionary having set tenants against landlords.  At the Mackworth Arms Inn, Neath, Edwards and a friend verbally and physically assaulted two Freeholders who refused to promise their votes for Edwards.  An unimaginable set events was to follow with Dillwyn and Edwards accusing each other of improper behaviour.

Edwards was on the verge of being elected unopposed as the other two candidates had withdrawn from the field; both candidates believed they had split the Country Gentlemen handing victory to Edwards as their supporters could not be persuaded to transfer allegiance.  Some Freeholders convened a meeting at the Gnoll

 ‘to ascertain whether it was yet too late to bring some proper person forward to oppose Edwards’ 

It was decided that the only option was to appeal to Sir Christopher Cole to re-enter the contest with a pledged of support of £5,000.00 [Cole had confessed he had no money to throw away in a contest].  Having met with Cole, Dillwyn sent out several letters informing the recipients that

‘the Gentlemen of the County are all coming forward with a determination to support Sir Christopher Cole and to inform all our Friends of this circumstance.’

Edwards was informed that something was afoot, and that letters had been despatched to Dillwyn’s agents, one of which lived at Ynysygerwn.  Edwards decided to pay the agent a visit but on his way met the agent’s son, who seeing that Edwards was in a rush borrowed a horse to return home.  When Edwards arrived at the farm, he was informed that the agent was not at home.  When the lad confirmed that a letter had arrived for his absent father, Edwards persuaded the lad to bring it to him.  After opening the letter, Edwards drove away with the letter and the borrowed horse and with the lad in hot pursuit; Edwards had the letter copied before the lad could retrieve it.  Both Edwards and William Vaughan read its contents to crowds who repeatedly cried shame against the Sheriff.  What followed was a public exchange of claim and counter-claim of miss-doing.  Edwards claimed Dillwyn, as Sheriff, had acted illegally and brought shame upon the office of Sheriff by openly supporting one candidate over another.  On the other hand, what right had Edwards to make enquires of Dillwyn’s letters, let alone read and copy them?   Edwards’s tactics appeared to have paid off, for on polling day Dillwyn was dismayed to find that neither Cole nor any of his supporters were present.  In the end Edwards was elected unopposed and as Sheriff it was Dillwyn’s duty to declare Edwards duly elected as the Representative of Glamorgan on 29th June 1818.  According to newspaper reports, on Edwards’s first visit to Swansea as County Representative ‘an immense crowd cheered as the new MP was chaired through the principal streets of the town before departing for London.’  Edwards’s election campaign had cost him an estimated £12,000.

In October 1818 Edwards’s father died at his home Belvedere House, Lambeth, bequeathing ‘all and singular my real and personal Estates and Effects Whatsoever and Wheresoever unto and for the use of my dear son of Bloomsbury Square…’ while his wife Catherine was to benefit from the annual proceeds generated from these estates.

Controversy and discrimination continued to dog Edwards long after his appointment as County Representative.  Edwards at the time of his nomination in 1818 had been a practising solicitor which would bar him from being elected.   He pledged that he would apply to the Courts of King’s Bench and Common Pleas to have his name removed from their rolls.   In February 1819 a rebuttal to a previously published article in The Cambrian newspaper stated that Mr John Edwards had not been struck off the rolls; he had not in fact applied to be removed until the November of 1818.  In August Edwards enjoyed a four day cruise with the Prince Regent only to be snubbed in September when, at the Grand Jury Dinner, the customary toast to the County Member was overlooked.  John Edwards’s hour of triumph was however short lived.  The death of King George III on 29th January 1820 resulted in Parliament being dissolved on 29th February 1820.  An early opportunity had presented itself for the principal gentlemen of the county to rid themselves of the “low lived blackguard!”

Shortly after the election of Edwards in 1818, Dillwyn recorded in his diary that at a meeting of Sir Christopher Cole and his friends, it was agreed immediately to raise a fund by subscription ‘to support the independence of the county and thus to prevent our representatives from being again carried off by the mere weight of Purse.’  The treasurers of this “coalition of wealth” were Henry John Grant of Gnoll Castle and the ironmaster Richard Hill of Llandaff House.  Eventually a total of £19,700 would be made available for election expenditure. 

Even before the candidates for the 1820 election had declared, rumour and counter rumour were spreading through the county with accusations of impropriety requiring public rebuttal.  The candidates for this election were the same three as at the last: Sir Christopher Cole, John Edwards and William Booth Grey.  Cole’s election campaign appears to have suffered the most physical abuse.  Whilst canvasing in Swansea market his supporters were infiltrated by opposition supporters with the result that fighting broke out between the two sets.  On another occasion, in Neath, stones were thrown at Dillwyn, being a supporters of Cole.  Dillwyn chronicled in his diary ‘I was severely struck on the Thigh, but pursued and succeeded in detecting the offender.’  It appears that “Coleites” were fair game with assaults taking place all over the County of Glamorgan.  Dillwyn writes that he was assaulted most violently in Merthyr by a party of Crawshays, but [miraculously] escaped without injury.  The election commenced at Bridgend on the 16th March 1820, where all three candidates were proposed and seconded and the bribery oath administered in English and Welsh.  On the first day and second days of polling Edwards came marginally out on top but Booth lagged so far behind he retired from the race.  When Edwards made his big push against Cole with “a great force of tenantry brought to vote,” Booth’s supporters also appeared in numbers to vote for Cole.  After nine days of polling Cole topped the ballot [25th March] and Edwards retired from the race – “A Junta of Demagogues” had prevailed against a low lived blackguard.  Edwards’ brief spell in the House of Commons did not set the house on fire as he had promised.  He spoke only once when presenting a petition on behalf of William Crawshay appealing against a tax on coal.

Edwards may have been overwhelmed at the time by his political defeat but he soon put it behind him; his social calendar was one distraction.  In 1822 Edwards was nominated for the Office of Sheriff of Glamorganshire to which he was appointed for the year of 1823.  A wealthy professional Edwards obviously wanted more in terms of social prestige.  His circle of acquaintances included King George IV with who he privately dined and gifted Providence pineapples grown at Rheola.  Because of the enormous cost in equipment and labour required to grow pineapples in a temperate climate, using hothouses called pineries, pineapples soon became a symbol of wealth.  In October 1826 Edwards presented the King with the largest pineapple ever grown in the kingdom. 

In the summer of 1825 fears had persisted in the circles of Glamorgan’s gentlemen that Edwards planned to make another attempt on the county at the next general election.  However, he was entreated, along with Richard Williams (a London banker), to stand for Wells in Somerset, on the independents’ ticket against the sitting Members.  He and Williams were defeated in the election alleging bribery and intimidation had been used against their supporters.  They also alleged that the mayor had rejected the claims of legitimate voters while allowing the claims of others with no legal right to vote.  A list of 67 individuals who had, allegedly, been improperly permitted to vote was prepared to substantiate their case, but the election committee decided for the sitting Members.

Away from politics Edwards had invested money in John Nash’s projects, including the ill-fated Regent’s Canal Company to which he was Clerk/Solicitor.  Edwards’s investments included the construction of what was to become Wenlock Basin.  It was opened at first by accident in August 1826 when the dam across the entrance gave way and water flooded into the new basin. 

In June 1829 newspapers reported the death of William Vaughan, of Lanelay, a long-time supporter of Edwards who had died at Edwards’ house in Regent Street, London.  Edwards and his children were beneficiaries of Vaughan and so in August that year, by Royal Licence, Edwards “in testimony of his grateful respect to the memory of Mr Vaughan, late of Lanelay, do take and use the surname of Vaughan, in addition to and after that of Edwards.”  Now known as John Edwards Vaughan of Rheola and Lanelay, he made another attempt to represent Wells.  This time he was partnered by John Lee Lee [formerly John Lee Hanning - he assumed the surname Lee in place of Hanning under the will of his uncle, Edward Lee].  During the severe election contest of 1830 Edwards Vaughan was accused of having shady business connections and electors were urged ‘not to be bought or sold for the convenience or profit of a lawyer.’  However, on this occasion Edwards Vaughan and Lee were returned well ahead of the opposition.  Poor health is said to have dogged Edwards Vaughan and that he had suffered a fit of apoplexy accompanied with a loss of sight.  His ill health prevented him from taking much part in parliamentary proceedings forcing him to take an absence from the House.

Rheola House c.1845 (12years after the death of John Edwards Vaughan)

Copyright - V&A Collection - taken by pioneer photographer Rev. Richard Calvert Jones

The social life of the Edwards Vaughan family continued to flourish, but not without its drama.  In February 1831, whilst out with the a local hunt in Ham Green, Buckinghamshire his horse, while in the act of jumping a gate, touched the top bar of the gate which immediately flew open.  The result was horse and rider came to ground with Edwards Vaughan pinned under the horse.  He remounted the horse but within a few minutes fell from the horse and was taken ‘senseless and nearly lifeless to the nearest public house.’ A week after his accident he was reported as making a gradual recovery.  Later that year Queen Adelaide held her second Drawing Room and Court where Miss Edwards Vaughan [Jessy] was presented by her mother.  At the same time Edwards Vaughan attended His Majesty’s Levee which was followed in June by Their Majesties’ Ball which the family attended. Edwards Vaughan’s parliamentary career was not plain sailing.  Wellington supporters had regarded him as one of their ‘friends,’ but his voting surprised many a member.  He voted against the Reform Bill which would broaden the franchise property qualification in the counties to include small landowners, tenant farmers and shopkeepers.  Following the passage of the Reform Act of 1832 parliament was once again dissolved.  Edwards Vaughan announced his intention to stand for election to the next parliament as representative of Wells.  However, on the first day of polling finding himself so far in the minority and suffering extreme bodily affliction, through his agent, Mr Lyons, he addressed the Electors and retired from the contest.  John Edwards Vaughan died, at his house in Regent Street, London, on 9th August 1833 after a long and painful illness.  His body was interred in the Church of St Mary, Lambeth, London, on 15th August 1833. 

He was survived by his wife and two children who have stories of their own to tell.


Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, Volume 2.

The History of Parliament online.

West Glamorgan Archive Service

Parish records.

Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette - 28th April 1796

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